Beyond ELT: How Can We Revitalize Teaching?
I can use that: I was reading about a fascinating study the other day: a day before the US elections, researcher A. Greenwald asked a number of people whether they would vote and if so, why. Predictably, most of the people replied they would. Yet the simple fact that they had been asked this question made a huge difference – 86.7% of them did end up voting as opposed to 61.5% in a control group. So, let me see now: If I were to ask my students…
The law of diminishing returns: If you are an old timer in ELT, I am sure you know what I mean. When you were a novice teacher every new article was a revelation; every presentation was an eye-opener. Yet after working for so many years these moments of awe are few and far between. Why? The answer is simple and it is called ‘The Law of Diminishing Returns’. Knowledge in any particular field follows a curve; initially yields are high – with little investment of time and effort one derives great benefits. However, beyond a certain point this ceases to be the case; we have to work harder and we gain progressively less. This is when it is time to look beyond ELT. Here is the great Rory Sutherland putting this idea in a nutshell:
Learn from the experts: Naturally, people in the business world have long realized the potential of importing new ideas and fresh perspectives from other fields.* Here are two examples:
- Larry Huston (vice-chair and lead creative director of Procter & Gamble) has made it a regular practice to expose his team to at least one idea from a field outside the world of business in the belief that this is bound to lead to novel approaches and original insights. OK – now think about the last time you attended an ELT event; how many of the speakers came from other fields?
- The J. Walter Thompson advertising agency deliberately employs people with degrees in such diverse fields as molecular biology or French Literature for its internal consulting group. The resulting wealth of ideas generated has doubled the agency’s billings in less than 3 years following the formation of the group. Now what about ELT publications? How many of the articles there come from experts outside the ELT world?
Who can we learn from?: I believe Rory Sutherland has got it right. The ‘sweet spot’ lies at the intersection of Technology, Psychology and (in our case) Education. Technology has already changed the way we do things and the rate of change is likely to increase in the near future. Yet in my view it is Psychology which holds the greatest promise for us teachers. Unlike principles from the world of ELT that tend to be context-specific, lessons from the various sub-disciplines of Psychology have much wider applicability. Here are some examples:
- Body Language: Random people in the street were stopped by research assistants and were asked to take part in a market survey. About 40% of them agreed. The study was then repeated with different subjects. This time the figure rose to 70%! Why? The answer is that when asking them, the assistants touched them lightly on the upper arm. Moral: Touching people – ever so lightly – greatly increases compliance.
- Management: In 1987, the managers of Brasilata launched a scheme under which each employee was labeled an ‘inventor’ (!); they were given an ‘innovation contract’ to sign and they were asked to come up with ideas about how the company could improve its effectiveness. The results were astonishing! In 2008 alone, 134,846 ideas were submitted! Productivity soared! Moral: Actively involving teachers (and students) in how things are done can pay huge dividends.
- Marketing: When cake mixtures first appeared on supermarket shelves, they were a flop. Marketers simply could not figure out why. The cakes tasted good and they were incredibly easy to prepare… But then it turned out that this was precisely the problem! Here is Dan Ariely explaining how ‘The Egg Theory’ solved this problem. Moral: Students are far more motivated if they can claim ownership of the ‘final product’ (story, sketch, poster etc.).
- Behavioural Economics: In an amazing study, dishes were presented to diners either embellished with flowery modifiers (‘succulent’ – ‘juicy’ – ‘tender’ etc.) or without them. Incredibly, not only was demand higher for the former, but they were also rated as tastier despite the fact that they were in fact identical to the others! Moral: The way we ‘sell’ an activity to the students can increase both motivation and the task’s perceived value.
- Social Psychology: In a study set in a school, the students in one class were instructed about the importance of keeping the classroom tidy. In another, teachers simply labelled students as children who did not litter (‘Anderssen’s Litter-Conscious Class’). Two weeks later, all kids were given a puzzle in a small, disposable plastic container. Researchers wanted to see how many of these would end up on the floor. Results: 70% in the former class compared to 15% in the latter! Moral: Propaganda does not work, but labelling does!
Last words: One of the many great ideas in Tim Murphey’s excellent ‘Teaching in Pursuit of Wow!’ is that the good teacher is always a teacher. Even when she is out of the classroom, the good teacher keeps her eyes open for facts, stories, images or insights which can inform her teaching. Yet I think there are teachers who are better still. Teachers who deliberately venture out of the narrow confines of our field to actively hunt these ideas down. And now we know where to look.
* To my amazement I recently discovered that there are actually people in our field who are beginning to take this idea seriously. Here are two titles: ‘Language Teaching Insights from Other Fields’ (Vol I [click here] and Vol II [click here]).
- Ariely, D. “The Upside of Irrationality” HarperCollins 2010
- Barden, P. “Decoded” Wiley 2013
- Goldstein, N., Martin, S. & Cialdini, R. “Yes! 50 secrets from the science of persuasion” Profile Books 2007
- Heath, C. & Heath, D. “Switch” Random House 2011
- Wilson, T. “Redirect” Penguin Books 2011
- Yeung, R. “i is for Influence” Macmillan 2011
- Zaltman, G. “How Customers Think” Harvard Business School Press 2003
- YouTube: ‘Psychology and ELT – Beyond ELT’: (Rory Sutherland) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u01xyIJWKz4
- YouTube: ‘Psychology and ELT – The Egg Theory: (Dan Ariely) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KVsEYN1rDk